Science of dream
Ways to tame insomnia, which faces anyone who works a lot or flies a lot – in our gallery
In scientific language, insomnia is called insomnia. And doctors who investigate and treat insomnia, as well as other diseases associated with sleep, are sleep specialists. From the point of view of somnologists, insomnia is a problem with falling asleep or poor sleep at least three times a week.
That is, three times a week you can not sleep for a long time, interfere with thoughts about the past day. You wake up in the middle of the night and twist and turn for a long time, again because of the endless scrolling in your head of the details of the conflict with the boss or a quarrel with the family. Or, on the contrary, you fall asleep quickly, sleep well, but you wake up long before the alarm and continue to sleep in one eye
signs of insomnia
But in addition to sleep disorders for the diagnosis of “insomnia” there must be complaints about feeling unwell during the day, or, as doctors say, while awake. “These are fatigue, weakness, feeling of sleeplessness, bad mood, anxiety, palpitations, sweating, impaired memory and attention and, as a result, decreased performance,” explains the president of the National Somnological Society, doctor of medical sciences, professor, chief researcher of the Research Department of Neuroscience First MGMU them. Daytime sleepiness is another clear sign of sleep problems. And if you fall asleep at the wheel – this is a reason to beat all the bells, urgent treatment. Serious sleep disorders also occur in those who suffer from daytime sleepiness and always snore while sleeping. ”
As various international studies show, up to 30% of people are dissatisfied with their sleep and believe that they suffer from insomnia.
But statistics is a crafty thing. If somnologists more strictly formulate the question “Do you have any wakefulness disorders that you associate with sleep disorders?”, Then only 10% of respondents answer in the affirmative. But at least once a year, each of us faces insomnia, somnologists say.
Sleep like a system
Why is insomnia familiar to each of us? Sleep is a kind of mirror, it reacts to all day events and suffers immensely from them. But there is good news. “Sleep is not only a very subtle, delicate, sensitive recovery process. “This is also a powerful system that is difficult to break completely,” doctor is convinced. “Sleep tries to adjust to the conditions that a person imposes on him.” From these conditions, there are two main causes of insomnia – it is stress and our devil-may-care attitude to sleep, or, as experts say, a violation of sleep hygiene.
According to doctor, 70% of patients consider the stressful situation to be the cause of their problems with sleep.
This is especially true for people working in business. They have a constant high load and an irregular working day, they are under stress all the time.
This phenomenon has received the name “manager’s syndrome” in medicine. The nervous system is constantly tense, tense sympathetic nervous system, responsible for the struggle. After some time, this state becomes natural for a person, he no longer notices that he is constantly on a platoon, controls himself, is always ready for action. For him, this is already the norm, but for the organism it is not the norm, it works at the limit of its capabilities. To go into a state of sleep, the brain must go into a state of relaxation, distraction from day cares. And the internal tension, excitement of the manager does not allow normal sleep to develop.
Stress causes insomnia even in the most healthy people – in astronauts. Doctor has been studying insomnia with cosmonauts since 1992. He notes that the most destructive effects on sleep are not so much stressful abnormal situations as predicted and significant events for a person, as well as the isolation in which the astronaut finds himself during a flight. By the way, in the first-aid kits of American astronauts half the tablets used in space are sleeping drugs, in particular, melatonin. Our astronauts still cope without sleeping pills.
With regard to violations of sleep hygiene, it is primarily unequal bedtime and unequal wake-up time. The greater the spread (one day you go to bed at twelve, the other at two in the morning), the more likely you are to get real insomnia.
But this is only half the problem
After returning home, we continue to work: urgent calls, finalizing presentations, viewing work mail. Thus, we ignore one of the main requirements of sleep hygiene – switching from day cares to pleasant relaxing matters that contribute to falling asleep. As a result, one of the important reflexes is lost – the conditioning reflex.
This means that when a person finds himself in a certain situation, he should automatically switch to the appropriate attitude. For example, if he sees a doctor in a white coat, he switches to readiness for treatment. When a person sees a bedroom with a disassembled bed, he should immediately switch to sleep.
But neither What kind of switching to sleep and speech can not be, when we, even being in bed, review important documents for tomorrow’s talks, wool our tapes in social networks or, to distract ourselves from thoughts about work, we play computer games. Another significant cause of insomnia – frequent flights, as when changing time zones, the sleep-wake cycle is disrupted. Only 30% of people do not have problems with adaptation to the time difference.
Who doesn’t sleep well, he doesn’t work A lot of research is devoted to studying the economic consequences of insomnia. So, Canadian scientists have estimated the damage from presentizma associated with insomnia: $ 800 per person per year. The term “presentism” means that a person comes to work, but at the same time, for various reasons, it is so inefficient and sometimes even dangerous for a business that it would be better to take time off. The damage caused by absenteeism (absence from work), according to Canadian researchers, does not exceed $ 500 per person per year. Somnologists of the whole world associate the Chernobyl accident with manifestations of drowsiness among personnel.
A detailed study of sleep with astronauts by the doctor’s group is associated primarily with daytime sleepiness and decreased performance. By the way, 80% of severe car accidents with fatalities and injuries are also associated with falling asleep while driving. The organism of each of us is genetically programmed for a specific time of sleep. With a careless attitude to his sleep, he pays the same coin: compresses the time allotted by nature to a person to sleep. Scientists have shown that with a lack of sleep, the incidence of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension increases, and the immune system is disturbed. It is a bad dream that can be the root cause of persistent health problems that doctors cannot find a clear explanation for. And, finally, the unconditional minus that insomnia entails is an unhealthy appearance. These are bags under the eyes, and a sore look, and dull skin. And all because in the dream there is a process of regeneration, the cells more actively divide, grow.